Instead of simply conducting clinical trials, scientists are already studying the general mechanisms of the occurrence of diseases.
The importance of biology for medicine: cannot be overestimated
With the help of biological modelling, it is possible to develop and study the action of new substances. More than 400 pharmaceutical companies around the world are engaged in research and development of genetic engineering products, with each year the number of these products is growing, and it is projected that in the next few years the market will be saturated with such drugs.
Many researchers believe that the influence of genetics on medicine can make a revolution in the understanding of human health; for this there is every reason – medical genetics is developed by leaps and bounds.
Forecasts are as follows:
in 2010, the market already had available genetic tests for the 25 most common genetic diseases,
by 2020, according to experts, new drugs obtained with the knowledge of pharmacogenomics will be a common practice in the treatment of diabetes and hypertension,
by 2040 (according to the most conservative estimates) there will come an era of personalized medicine.
What is biotechnology and its role
The biotechnological revolution in healthcare and medicine began with the development of recombinant DNA technology
(genetic engineering). It happened in the early 70s of the last century and allowed scientists to transfer genetic material from one organism to another, bypassing the process of sexual reproduction.
The success of recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology has brought the use of bacterial enzymes, such as:
- restriction endonuclease (restrictase), which cut DNA molecules in certain places;
- DNA ligases that connect the ends of DNA molecules;
- DNA polymerases that are involved in DNA replication.
Whatever the use of this technology, the final outcome of the procedure is always stable and heritable expression of some new feature. RDNA is used to modify various organisms, but the main stages of work are similar. In addition to plasmids, other types of vectors are also used: bacteriophages, retroviruses and cosmids.
The importance of biology for medicine: the creation of RDNA
To create a RDNA molecule, it is necessary:
- Isolate DNA from a donor cell (be it an animal cell or plant cell).
- Treat the isolated DNA and plasmid (molecule-vector) with the same restriction enzymes and mix them together. The “sticky ends” of the donor DNA form hydrogen bonds with the sticky ends of the plasmid, then the cross-linking of the recombinant molecule with ligases takes place.
- The modified plasmid is transferred to the bacterium, which then increases copies of the genetic information that we have contributed to the plasmid.
Successes in increasing the importance of biology for medicine, in the field of creating recombinant biomolecules, deepened our fundamental knowledge about the molecular basis of human diseases and this served as the primary reason for creating a new applied science – molecular medicine.
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer in their works in 1973 laid a foothold for the further development of biotechnology. Our technology is becoming so advanced each day and biotechnology in medicine or pay by phone casino site is just a few examples. All parts of our life are changing. We might as well be able to play online gambling games in our late 120s. Everything is ahead of us.
So, what is biotechnology?
Biotechnology is often compared to a flaming star, because in the future it will be able to open many opportunities for mankind. The human genome has already been sequenced and now the challenge is to understand how this huge array of genes functions, and how this knowledge can be used in pharmacology and clinical practice.
Advances in the field of “omics” (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) are already changing our approach to the development of new medicines, because this brings real economic and practical benefits.
The approach to gene therapy also needs to be reviewed. Bioinformatics and proteomics are relatively young sciences, but already now they are placed on the hope of solving the issue of understanding how bacterial proteomes adapt to changing environmental conditions. This will make a breakthrough in pharmacogenomics and bring the concept of personalized medicine closer to embodiment.
New classes of drugs will expand the spectrum of therapeutic intervention beyond simple changes in receptor function and, together with the use of stem cells for treatment, will allow for more precise interventions.
Such highly efficient technologies as DNA microarrays, already now clearly demonstrate what biotechnology is, allow simultaneous genetic analysis of hundreds of genes and find application in diagnosis, prognosis of the course of the disease, and drug therapy.
Proteomics, molecular biology and nanotechnology raise the importance of biology to medicine to new heights, bring victory to the diseases of the central system, as well as malignant neoplasms of blood. These achievements now allow us to shift the scope of life expectancy in developed countries. This is facilitated by research in the field of transplantology and molecular nanotechnology.
Advances in biotechnology in the field of creating more effective vaccines cannot be overemphasized, moreover, it served as a stimulus for further research in the field of microbiology. Vaccines of the new generation, in particular recombinant vaccines, are less reactogenic than traditional vaccines, but unfortunately, immunogenicity suffers from this, so new, more effective adjuvants are needed.
The importance of biology for medicine and biotechnology is growing day by day thanks to the support of private biotech companies and world-renowned scientists. But already now it becomes obvious that this phenomenon is not temporary and significantly accelerates progress not only in the areas of understanding the fundamental foundations of the existence of biological objects, but also in application-oriented areas such as medicine.